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Letter from the Editors
Michelle Thorne, Chris Adams and Carrie Hou

Solarpunk and Hope

We Don’t Have the Right: A Decolonized Approach to Innovation
Shayna Robinson

Artefacts from Hopeful Futures
Decentralizing Digital: Loraine Clarke, Babitha George, Romit Raj, Jon Rogers, Neha Singh, Martin Skelly and Pete Thomas

Decentralising Digital: Yuvraj Jha

Fossil-Free Futures

We Need a Fossil-Free Internet by 2030
Chris Adams

Tech4Bad: When Do We Say No?
Ian Brooks MBCS, Minna Laurell Thorslund, Aksel Biørn-Hansen, Elena Somova

Tackling Adtech and Climate Misinformation

Open Letter: Tackling the Threat of Climate Misinformation and Disinformation
Climate Disinformation Coalition

Carbon Footprint of Unwanted Data-Use by Smartphones
CE Delft

Cabin: A Privacy-Preserving, Carbon-Aware Web Analytics Program

Tech Workers Take A Stand

How a Tech Worker Fought Back from Being Fired as a Union Organiser
Clarissa Redwine

The Handbook Every Worker in Tech Needs to Read
Ifeoma Ozoma

What We Can Do Better: Managing Change in Businesses
Cathleen Berger

Sustainable Web Craft

Green Tech: What Solutions Are Being Advocated?
Anne Currie

Beyond Single-Dimensional Metrics for Digital Sustainability
Abhishek Gupta

Green Software Development Is The Only Software Development We Need

Luis Cruz

Climate Action and Net-Zero Ambition: Best Practices for Small and Medium Enterprises?
Cathleen Berger, Chris Hartgerink, Indré Blauzdžiūnaitė, and Vineeta Greenwood

Climate Justice and Solidarity

Climate Colonialism and the EU’s Green Deal
Myriam Douo

Climate Justice as a Core Competency among Internet Practitioners
Michelle Thorne and Chris Adams

A Beginner’s Guide to Climate Justice in Tech
Richard Kim

Intercitizenship and Solidarity-Driven Business
Andres Colmenares

About Branch

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Decentralising Digital: Exoskeletons

Farmers wearing locally produced exoskeletons made by the community and built from traditional techniques.
Speculative illustration and story by Yuvraj Jha as part of the Decentralising Digital research project.

It is widely understood that one of the hardest parts of farming is, to put it mildly, farming. Labour intensive, unpredictable, and in the long run, backbreaking.

And this is one of the primary reasons why the younger generation is moving to the cities for a better future. This has led to fewer people working in the fields, which means less food or more technology on our farms. Neither of which is a good idea. Even though tech and automation are good overall, in the long run the health of the farm depends on the health of the farmer. And the potential disconnect with the land proves to be extremely debilitating over decades. However, the back-breaking load of farm work over prolonged periods of time causes health issues such as hernia—issues that at the moment do not have sufficient solutions and continue into old age. This speculative illustration accompanies a short story on the lives of people in a village who have deployed exoskeletons on their village farms instead of drones.

In the long run, the health of the farm depends on the health of the farmer.

Short feeble footsteps rush on in aged hurry. Heavy breathing.

“This village is too small. We are not good enough for him.” Pauses for breath. “Those people are better in their big-big town. Hain?! Huh!” she mumbles as her nose furiously works to pace her aged knees. Anger keeps her feet steady. Her heart is in pain. “That tiny thankless rat! I will show him today!”

In the trees the Drongo chirps its goodbye to the orange in the sky. The Suraga mimes the suffocated hum of the farm drones parking themselves on the sides. The machines wind down and relay their locations to the centre. Sriram slows his bicycle to greet her. Cheerfully. “Good-morning, Avva. Where are you walking to, so fast-fast?” Ignored.

She walks. A goddess twitches in confusion in the sky. Decisions come harder these days. “He thinks he can leave his mother! HIS MOTHER!!! That good for nothing, hollow-empty-wire!” Sriram, confused, hurries on to deliver the last package of the day.

The folks in the paddy fields plant their last saplings just as Arun is pulling down the shutters, “Shr-rr-rr-rr-rr”. The Community Store or The Gram Seva Kendra is a multipurpose kiosk. It works as a fair price depot, provides exoskeletons for the field workers and keeps track of the weather data to sound the alarm when required. This is also the place where farm-related decisions are taken thanks to the larger community database it is connected to. To sum it up, this is the heart of the village, and Arun, the man shutting the shutter, is its guardian.

The Community Store or The Gram Seva Kendra is a multipurpose kiosk. It works as a fair price depot, provides exoskeletons for the field workers and keeps track of the weather data to sound the alarm when required.

The shutter hits the concrete and ruffles the dust. But all this is inconsequential today. Arun is surprised to see Avva so far from her house. “Avva? Is everything ok? Where are you headed to so late?” he asks as she turns to face him. Her heart racing, she reaches the steps breathless and furious as he pulls up a chair that was kept in the corner. “Here sit. Why Avva?! The doctor has asked you not to walk so much. You should have asked for me to come if you needed to see me. I hope everything is fine though?“ he says with concern in his voice.

“Shut up! Both you and the doctor can wash your face with cow dung. I can take care of myself!”

Arun puts his hand in the khakhi bag he carries. He lifts out a flask and pours tea. Her temper is world famous in the village. There are only so many ways Avva can be calmed, and one of them was the tea that Shanta makes. He had saved two cups from his daily quota to share with her when he got home. She takes the earthen cup from his hands. “You tell me everything right now! Those exoskeletons. Are they not the best in the world? Is this village not the best place to be? Every other village is jealous of us! Is that not true? Then why would anyone want to leave when everyone wants to come back?”

Sip. She forgets. The smell of tulsi fills her heart. The Goddess has decided. “This tea is very good. How is Shanta?” without waiting for his reply she continues, “Forget that, you tell me. It was so hard to grow food in my time. Yes, the rain and sun was better then, but everyone was in pain all the time.” She rants to herself, “Raghu died of something like hernia, Sriram’s grandfather of a bent back and wrecked joints…” she pauses as her mind opens the gates to her memories. Her temper rises and falls. “And then you made these eksoskull-a-tons! Such a good thing!

Now see all the girls want to marry into this village. So much good fortune you brought. You are a good man. Your father was also a good man. But he was very naughty, you are kinder. I remember when he was born. It was right after the harvest. We had all danced for two days outside your house. Those were good times. But forget that. You explain to me, son. Today I will understand everything from you. Even in the city you will not find such good things. Is it not best to stay here at home?”

“Avva what is the matter?” Arun is not sure what is going on. But her agitation is enough to suggest that something is amiss. In the distance a thresher; threshes.

“You tell me how these things are better than what is in the city, and I will go and tell Sridhar.” Her voice shudders as horrid anticipations form in her mind. “He says he will leave.” She breathes faster. Desperate, her hands tremble. “He will leave for the city, he said. It is better there, he said. That rat!”

By now a group of hardened faces had collected behind her in curiosity. But everyone freezes as they realise what is going on. ‘Sridhar is leaving’ instant messages murmur through the village network. People sit up straight in their houses, grandmothers and grandfathers pray to their respective deities. She turns. “What are you insolent liver-wasters listening to?” nodding, no one replies. They understand her fears and her anger. They too had felt it when their loved ones decided to leave before the exoskeletons came to the village.

“Avva, let me take you home and I can tell you on the way.” Arun takes charge. “NO! HERE! NOW!” she says with authority.

“Ok Avva. Yes, these have helped everyone.” he points to the exoskeletons lying outside the warehouse. “These drones as well. They could have been better, but they are made from local things so they are cheaper and more suited for us. And of course they help us with all the manual work which was so hard you remember? But I did not make them alone, we all made this together. Over the years we gathered up all our local records of the techniques and traditions that yours and my father’s generation had, and using that information the computer makes decisions to make sure that the sowing, or plowing, or harvesting happens properly and on time. You understand what I am saying. But, listen, can I take you home and then we can talk to Sridhar together and tell him all about this and then he will not have to leave?”

Avva does not understand a word. She heard it, and she got it, but she did not know how any of this would help her convince Sridhar. Her heart sinks to the centre of the earth. Her shoulders droop as if the devil put weights on her. “Oh Saraswati! Sridhar will leave! He will go, my child! My piece of liver!”

Arun continues, “And best of all, all this is made here as you know. None of this came from the city. So there is no need to go to the city.” Her back straightens, her resolve rekindled. “Amma. Let me come with you and we can talk to Sridhar together.”

“Yes, Yes. That is the best idea.”

Thankful, she closes her eyes in a quick prayer. She knows the goddess is with her.


This speculative illustration and story by Yuvraj Jha is part of Decentralising Digital, an ongoing research project seeking to co-create new narratives for decentralised digital futures working with rural communities in Karnataka, India. The research is led by Quicksand, an interdisciplinary design research and innovation consultancy based in India, and in collaboration with local community partners, creatives from across the country and designers from the University of Dundee, UK. The team includes Loraine Clarke, Babitha George, Romit Raj, Jon Rogers, Neha Singh, Martin Skelly and Pete Thomas.